The Charminar gallis or lanes and gotraachar

Govind Lal and Mohana Devi at their home in Boggulakunta, July 2019

Mohana Devi says: “Chudi Galli, Talim Galli, Kutta Galli, Dekchi Galli, Gurbanna Galli- we stayed close to each other”. If we imagine a time when some folks are jagirdars (property/land owners) and some without the jagirs (property), this community established rules to control expenses related to weddings and such events. Here is one such example where Govind Chacha and Mohana Chachi talk about the custom where elders would come to bless the couple at the time of gotraachhar or “the auspicious time when the stars have aligned” for the couple to be married and this time is set by the pundits based on the couple’s kundlis or astrological charts.

Govind Lal said that some elders would only come to bless the couple and leave because they may not be related directly to the couple and hence were invited for ‘giving’ the blessing. They would not stay for the meal and festivities later on. This became a custom for a while and changed with the times when community members could afford the expense. Incomes increased later and people have incorporated newer customs.

As with most material aspects and objects, our capabilities and desires change. We find more ways for enjoyment but also work to find a balance. Maya and surplus, the measure of our success is always around the corner beckoning us to scale up.

People of BKC, Dr. Vijender Waghray

Dr. Vijender Waghray reading a couplet from his notebook of poems. August 5, 2019

Dr. Waghray, 93, was an eminent physician of Hyderabad and loved to maintain a book of poems he frequently read out of. He had his education in Mufeed-ul-Annam which was in Urdu and then his medical education was in English. Her he is reading from that book when I met him last year in August. The prominent pieces of poetry are from Ghalib. His book of poems was kept close by and he read from it. Dr. Waghray passed away at unfortunately before I arrived with my camera.

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Lota- an object in a household

Things, artifacts, household items of value to a family that have been preserved. These could be documents like a grandfather’s old passport, a house deed, an old diary, puja items, jewelry, furniture, books, cutlery/crockery and more. It is valuable due to its connection to the past with a story about it. Objects are located in landscapes that consist of people, places and events associated with them. These are intertwined and they overlap. The silos are set up to temporarily make sense of the reality facing this research and then to enable the larger picture to emerge.

A household object is part of a daily routine in a family, starting with affirmations of faith and circulating the rituals of meaning, to trying to manage the burden of moving into another landscape of aspirations that calls for glorifying the objects or discarding them in order to organize and present a new way of life.
Objects hold meaning in as much as they are part of the supporting structure of a lifestyle. They demand a certain care.

Interesting questions stay in the story as to who were the merchants that sold these objects or where are they now? Who had the first ability to use the machine gun like pen attached to a wire in the store that allowed for the writing on the metal? What brought this about as a cultural marker of ownership of household objects that even to this day has great significance?

This object here is a lota, a brass vessel used as kalash in pujas. The ritual meaning of kalash and the significance of the water held inside is paramount in a puja and is available to understand.
The letters on this brass lota are marked B. L. and they stand for Bidri Lal. This lota is the provenance of the Waghray family from Kachiguda, Hyderabad.
The lota travelled to the US with me (Malini Waghray) and came back to be a part of this archival research. While in the US it was a part of my dual-cultural living between the US and India and a remained in my puja as well. It has a special place in this research work hence.

Here is some history about Bidri Lal from the Green Book, which is also on a shared a google drive.

Bidri Lal had his early education in Mufeed-ul-Anam School and City College and B.A. from Osmania University. He joined the agriculture department of the government of Hyderabad and after working in Warangal, was transferred to the office of the director and later promoted as gazetted registrar and retired. He was married to Shama Bai, daughter of Gajanand Pershad Shah.

His grandfather Narayan Das, alias Bachhu Lal, apart from being a Mansabdar was employed in Sarf-e-Khas and posted in the Peshi (personal office) of Nizam the 6th, Nawab Mir Mahboob Ali Khan, who had succeeded to the throne in 1869. Narayan Das was one of the members of the Brahma Kshatriya community associated with Bansi Lal Shah, who started Mufeed-ul-Anam School. He was the cousin of Bansi Lal and was honorary treasurer of the school from 1880 to 1889. Bidri Lal was the son of Navratan Lal and great-grandson of Keshav Das Waghray who migrated from Khanbad, Gujrat.

Navratan Lal, son of Narayan Das was educated in Madarasa-e-Aiza, a prime institute. He had joined the Paigah Asman Jahi as an officer in the Accounts Department. Later he was Deputy Accountant General and Deputy Nazim Mukharij. He served the Paigah till his retirement. He was a member of the Managing Committee of the Mufeed-ul-Anam School and was honorary treasurer from 1899 to 1947.
There will be more to the story as the days pass and we leave the virus behind…

Navigating a Micro History

A Micro history is an interesting path to navigate larger socio-political phenomena down to individual stories!
In the first photograph one can locate the jagir of Kanhaiya Pershad (Kapoor) on the map to the right. My research got me to the Kalakriti Archives and to the many maps I browsed to get to this one.

Map Name (as per archival naming conventions; retained in spelling and order): Chadarghat & Residency_Area 9_Sheet 44_KA.MP.2016.1743
Creator of the map: Leonard Munn, A.F Chinoy, A.T Mackenzie
Date Created: December, 1912
Provenance: These sets of maps were created by the Hyderabad Municipal Survey during 1912-1915. he devastation caused by the flood of 1908 in the river Musi, prompted the Nizam’s administration to devise a plan for urban Hyderabad. This was led by an engineer Leonard Munn (1878-1935). The other people, who were part of the survey under Munn, was A.F. Chinoy as the assistant and A.T. Mackenzie as chief engineer from the P.W.D. What makes these maps much more precious is that each and every thing are depicted in it. The names of streets, landmarks, and even residents appeared prominently on the map. The dominant opinion on the creation of the municipal maps is the 1908 flood, which took over many lives as well as even merged some areas into one. After the flood, Nizam decided to change the future of the Hyderabad city, who could realize the pitfalls of unplanned growth, resulted in the formation of a planning body called city improvement Board (CIB) in 1912 under the able guidance of M. Vishveshwarya from Mysore. The following years marked by the development activities by the CIB such as improvement of the Musi river banks, slum clearance, construction of houses, construction of bridges and lakes, road and sewerage, and stormwater drainage etc. Also, M. Vishveshwarya submitted a comprehensive planning and some recommendation for the future modification of the city in 1930. The net result also included the idea of Municipal Survey, because without survey modification of the city would be impossible. Thus, survey became inevitable and became the base for everything. The original survey which was started in 1912, done using trigonometric methods with reference to Global Telecommunication System (GTS) points, took over three years to complete it.>> courtesy @Kalakriti Archives and Krishnakriti Foundation

The second photograph is Raja Kanhaiya Pershad (Kapoor) in the black shervani with his family. I had the good fortune of interviewing Dr. Sham Sunder Pershad Kapoor recently when I chanced upon the photograph.
Seating from left to right is Narender Pershad, Chanda Bai, Kanhaiya Pershad, Raj Kumari Devi, Urmila Devi.
Sitting on Floor is Ravinder Pershad
Standing from left to right is Murlidhar Pershad, Sham Sunder Pershad, Rupender Pershad and Surender Pershad.

The third picture is my team-from left to right- camera person Sharan Mohandoss, research assistant Sreesh Waghray, Director of Krishnakriti Foundation, Abeer Gupta and yours truly along with Dr. Sham Sunder Kapoor March 3, 2020

Historic Core of Hyderabad 1925

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Paraath or a large plate

A brass plate or paraath, utilized in a large family orcommunity gathering was borrowed by people in the neighborhood. It is 18 inches in diameter and is about five pounds in weight. This particular plate belonged to my husband’s family and it was a token return gift at a wedding, and all the members of this particularwedding party, in 1911, received it. The inscriptionwritten is the name of the person who got married- a symbol of syncretism. It reads “Eknath Pershad, grandson of Nand Lal” and it is written in Urdu which was the medium of instruction and common parlance through the 1900s in Hyderabad, India.

Brass Metal Plate or Paraath, Hema Malini Waghray

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A history of the Brahma Kshatriyas of Hyderabad as written by K L Mahendra

In my attempt to record and find recorded history, I have come across compilations of the Brahma Kshatriyas history by members of the community and this is one example. This account will be examined through further research. For example, the myth related to the origin of community as mentioned below: from Scythians is an interesting one that can be explored further. The migration along with nobles and Asaf Jahs have available documentation and that is another space for research. K L Mahendra’s account has nuances and depth and gives a vivid picture of his own research.

Malini Waghray

In Hyderabad there is a well-knit community- namely the Brahma Kshatriyas. There is a tendency to link caste or communities with the epics, which is a slippery ground. Some claim descendants of Parashuram i.e., half-Brahmins, half-Kshatriyas.

Historical studies reveal that those who came from outside the country were adjusted within the four castes in the caste system prevailing in the country. The Jats were treated as Kshatriyas. Now, among the Jats there are Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. In spite of these religious differences they consider themselves as one Jat biradari. Similarly, the Gujjars are the Huns that came from outside India. There is no caste differentiation among them and they all live as one biradari.

The Kshatriyas, in the four-fold caste division among the Hindus, were considered as warriors and also rulers. But, today we find that the Kshatriyas in Punjab are mainly in business. There are Brahma Kshatriyas also in Uttar Pradesh and in Bengal. In Maharashtra, the Brahma Kshatriyas are a well-knit community. Bhupendra Dutta, the renowned anthropologist, (brother of Swami Vivekananda) in his book “Indian Polity” has written that the Brahma Kshatriyas are Scythians, who, after coming to India, remained a distinct entity without entering into inter-marriages. They first settled in Punjab. Some moved to Uttar Pradesh, some to Bengal, and some to Gujarat. According to him, the royal family of Tripura, the “Burmans”, belonged to this community.

Some families of Brahma Kshatriyas came to Hyderabad from Gujarat along with some of the nobles’ families. Some came with Asaf Jahis. Some came with the nobles of Fakhr-ul-Mulk and his brother Khan Khana, and some others with the nobles of Paigah. Those who came with the nobles stayed with them as administrators for generations.

The details mentioned below of the members of the community is specific and some family members have kept an account of the stories. The nature of life back in the day, of the details that have been passed on through the generations provides a rich oral history of the members.

Malini Waghray

In Hyderabad there were five jagirdar families in the Brahmakshatriya community, a few sirishtadars and mansabdars. These were Rai Vasudev Rai, Jai Shanker Das who inherited the jagir from his maternal grandmother Rani Gangu Bai, Raja Bansilal and family; Mugat Ram and family, Mohan Lal and family and Tej Rai and family. A large number of community members were related directly or indirectly to these jagirdar families. Socially and educationally, the community was more advanced and hence persons of the community held high posts or were executives or took up clerical posts.

Rai Bal Mukund was the Chief Justice of Hyderabad High Court. Some were working in the peshi of the Nizam himself. There were some magistrates and even some collectors during the Nizam’s time. Some came from Uttar Pradesh and after studies became professionals like doctors, lawyers etc. or joined government service.

Amongst the locals, Rai Shanker Pershad was Accountant General, and Rai Bheem Rai was Commissioner of Excise. Rai Brij Mohan Lal and Rai Raj Mohan Lal were judges of the Criminal Court. Dr. Major B.S. Raj was family doctor to the Prince of Berar (Nizam’s son) and was a renowned surgeon. Others held high positions in Paigah administration and with other nobles.

Amongst those who came from Uttar Pradesh were Rai Bisheshwar Nath and Kailashnath Waghray. Rai Bisheshwarnath became the Chief Justice of Hyderabad and after his retirement from Hyderabad High Court, the Raja of Bikaner appointed him the Chief Justice of Bikaner. Dr. Kailashnath Waghray, on return from army service was appointed the Director of Medical Services. He was also the personal physician to the Nizam himself. He was amongst the top few physicians.

There were social reformers like Rai Bal Mukund who, along with Bhagya Reddy Verma, devoted himself to the uplift of the untouchables of the Scheduled Castes and depressed classes. Together, they were the founders of the Adi Hindu Social Service League and built the Adi Hindu Bhavan at Chaderghat. Bal Mukund wrote in his will that the Adi Hindus – Harijans – should perform his funeral. Because of this, the priests of the community boycotted the family for some time. From this family, Barrister Sri Kishen was a well-known public figure. Rai Jagat Narayan paid attention to social reforms in the community. Raja Bansi Lal took the initiative to start the Mufeed-ul-Anam School, now High School and College and one of the oldest educational institutions in the city of Hyderabad.

The Quomi Fund was started with the object of helping the needy in the community in education. Every member, rich or poor, contributed to the fund at the time of any ceremonial occasion in the family like moondan, janvai (thread ceremony), but especially in marriages. Mufeed-ul-Anam Girls Hindi School was started which became a high school. But due to a financial crunch, the Girls School was handed over to the Hindi Prachar Sabha, Hyderabad, during the lifetime of Sri Hari Lal Waghray, who was also in the leadership of the Hindi Prachar Sabha.

Unlike other communities in the Hindus, the Brahma Kshatriya community had two distinct features of social life. One, to ask for dowry or to negotiate for it at the time of marriage was looked down upon. None claimed dowry. Whatever was given at the time of marriage was accepted. Moreover, while bigamy was practiced among other communities, none took a second wife as long as the first wife was alive, even if she was invalid and incapacitated.

In the subsequent period, there were Brahma Kshatriyas holding high positions in administration and judiciary. There were Secretaries to Government i.e. Sri H. Ram Lal (HCS), Guru Das, Narsing Raj, B. N. Waghray, Dilsukhram, all IAS, Rai Daulat Rai (Chief Conservator of Forests) Rai Mahender Bahadur, Director of Agriculture, Dr. N. Ram Lal, Director of Education. There were Chief Engineers, Superintending Engineers: Radha Kishen, Laxminarayan, Bala Pershad, Veernath Rai, Chain Rai, Gopal Kishen. There were eminent doctors like Dr. V. N. Waghray, Supt., Osmania General Hospital, Dr. Tulsi Das, R.M.O. Osmania Hospital, Dr. Dharam Rai eminent Orthopaedic Surgeon and Head of Orthopaedic Dept., Dr. B. K. Sahay, Suptd. Osmania Hospital, Dr. Chandrakala Sahay Suptd., Maternity Hospital, Dr. P. Ramchander, Suptd. Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and renowned Ophthalmologist; Dr. Karan Pershad, Suptd., Fever Hospital and Dr. Sathyanarayan Sahgal, Professor, Osmania Medical College. In the Judicial Services were Rai Nauratan Lal, Mohan Lal, Mahesh Narayan, and R. P. Sahgal – all Sessions Judges. In the Railways, Sri Arjun Pershad retired as General Manager. Govind Lal was in the Railway Recruitment Board. Guru Pershad entered the Railway service but when the Road Transport was separated, he became the first architect of the present A.P.S.R.T.C.

The Brahma Kshatriyas were initially not successful in business. Few entered the field i.e. Gopal Pershad, proprietor of G. Paul & Co, and Somnath Burman. But after formation of Andhra Pradesh, entry into business has started. More and more young men and women are taking to independent professions like doctors, lawyers, architects, specialized medical services, M.B.A. etc. where the trend was to join govt. services, banks, insurance and other public sectors.

The ladies in the community followed tradition. They observed purdah in old city during the Nizam’s rule. After independence, more and more girls took higher education and now there are lady doctors, teachers, technicians, and women-folk working in banks, offices and factories. This has brought about a sea change in the social outlook. Now whether a boy or a girl marries outside the caste or into another linguistic group, they are considered part of the community. Some girls have married Muslims and are considered friends. A scientific outlook has developed as is manifested by the trend to take the dead to the electric crematorium.

Generally members of the community kept aloof from the political movement. But, during the last phase of the freedom struggle, five or six members took an active part in the political and social life and some of them who participated in the communist movement were extended great sympathy and active support from several households in the community during the period when they had to work underground. They took great risks on themselves thereby. Nauratan Lal, though a magistrate at that time was arrested for his support to his communist brother Amolak Ram and for suspected sheltering the underground communists Somnath Burman, Hari Lal Waghray, Radha Kishen and Gopal Pershad. Gopi Kishen and Daulat Rai Waghray were among the many who extended their help at great risk to themselves. Certainly Smt. Gayatri Devi’s magnificent role can never be forgotten.

The explanation of biradari and the ties that keep it together is something to be explored as well.

Malini Waghray

A significant feature of the Brahma Kshatriyas is that they call themselves a “biradari” which implies much more than a community or caste.

Adaptability to circumstances and environment is normal. Those who came from Uttar Pradesh, or Gujarat or Punjab picked up Urdu, which was the official language. This helped them to get into government services.

But being educated in English or Urdu kept them away from the ancient culture and civilization, which was mostly available in Hindi or other languages but not in Urdu or English. Nor was the culture of Persia or Arabs imbibed because neither Persian nor Arabic was studied. Perhaps this is the community. History has recorded processes of denationalisation and here we have our example. Some members with education in English have settled down in US or England but still marriages are within the biradari.

Our customs are rituals that have been sustained by the women-folk who studied Hindi. They kept track of the festivals and various functions like first pregnancy, Naamkaran, moondan, sacred thread ceremony and marriages and shraadh. The men followed the advice of the women folk and the Brahmins. They were agnostics fulfilling the rituals mechanically without any idea of what it all meant.

The predominant section came from Uttar Pradesh or other Hindi-speaking people in Gujarat. This had its impact on the observance of rituals. It is evident from the songs sung in all festive occasions from birth to marriage. These are mainly Hindi an admixture of Gujarati. In old days children used to shout: “Ram Laxman Janki- Jai Bolo Hanuman ki” typical of the Indo-Gangetic region.

Our men-folk studied Urdu and bulk of our women-folk studied Hindi, while the Purohit and Shukal of the community knew Gujarati. Earlier, family disputes used to be settled mainly by intervention and arbitration of elders as was the practice in all castes, which had their respective caste panchayats quite distinct from village panchayats. This has disappeared with urbanisation and education. Even the joint family system has started breaking up from the thirties and we also have moved towards the single-family system. Such has been the socio-economic and cultural background of the Brahma Kshatriya community living in the past and its changes with the time.

by K. L. Mahendra in The Brahma Kshatriyas of Hyderabad (1997): Amolak Ram Waghray
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Paandaan

Paandaan or the betel leaf box (literal translation) was considered a part of every day meal routines and hence part of the trousseau. Most of the paandaan items were available in regular bartan (kitchen-ware) stores, or jewelry stores in the later years. Before that the jeweler was given the task of making it from silver. By the time my parents got married, they were given (as part of the dowry) a silver box with some pre-made paan (betel leaf) and some supari (betel nut). Every family decided what to give based on what they could afford and in some cases the boy’s family would say not to give anything because they already had everything and these things were handed down to the next generation.

In most homes there were two boxes. One heart shaped box to store the actual betel leaves and the second rectangular one with several compartments and little boxes to house the paraphernalia. These were made of a white metal or silver. The little boxes were almost always made of silver. The silver boxes would hold the wet ingredients like chunna (calcium hydroxide) and kattha (made from the khair tree [Acacia catechu]). Both these ingredients were also stored in their dry form in more silver boxes that were kept in the bottom of the big rectangular box. This box had a tray that had compartments and the bottom held all the extras.

Shashi’s mother Mohana Devi from Boggulakunta, Hyderabad showing the paandaan.

The rest of the supplies were lavang (clove), elaichi (cardamom), black supari (calcium hydroxide), regular supari , whole and chopped, zarda (tobacco) and khimaam (liquid tobacco which is mixed with dry leafs of tobacco before filling a pouch to keep tobacco fresh). Some people had saunf (fennel seeds) and dhania dal (coriander dal) in their paandaan and with different containers for those.

Some people used their finger to smear the chunna and kattha, some used the back of a tiny spatula which was also made of silver. Some people used wet chunna and dry kattha powder sprinkled on the chunna. Then you put the supari and elaichi seeds in the middle of the leaf and folded it to form a beeda (tube) and secured it with a lavang. The khimaam and zarda were always offered on the side.

The paan leaves are the betel leaves and have known medicinal benefits. In order to keep them fresh, the leaves were always wrapped in a wet cloth. This would make them last for over a week. It was a ritual to make paan after a meal each day. When you had a get together, you made a whole stash of them to offer to your guests after the meal.

Paan or the betel leaf box

In weddings, you had a selection of different varieties of the basic paan. The other additions were sukha khopra (dry coconut), gulkand (a mixture of rose petals and sugar cooked in the sun) toasted sesame seeds, sweet supari and tiny silver sugar balls. They used to foil the paan with silver leaves. While growing up I saw my grandparents generation chewing paan on a regular basis but my parents’ generation were occasional paan consumers.

by Shashi Sehgal
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Hammaam

The hammaam was made of either copper or brass. In most of our relatives’ homes I remember seeing copper ones, there were a few brass ones. There were a couple of different styles but the way they worked was the same. There were basically two cylinders, one inside the other. The inner one was usually made of iron, it was about four or five inches in diameter and about four inches longer than the outer cylinder, which was about twelve to fifteen inches in diameter. The inner tube had no cover. The outer cylinder had a lid. The bottom of the inner tube had a grate. You filled the outer cylinder with water, the inner one with either firewood or charcoal. You light the fire from the bottom after stuffing it with a few crumpled newspapers, similar to the way we light the charcoal chimney here that we use to start the grill.

Every morning it was the duty of one of the family members to light the hammaam. It took about twenty to twenty five minutes for the water to boil. Towards the bottom of the outer cylinder that stored the water was a faucet, to get the hot water. Everyone got to take a bucket of hot water and add whatever amount of cold water they liked to take a bath with. As soon as you got a bucket out you had to add a bucket of tap water to the hammaam. This ensured that the whole family got hot water.

Once everyone was done bathing, they used the rest of the hot water to do the dishes and laundry and then emptied the whole contraption out. It was washed and shined. The ashes were cooled and used to scrub the oily dishes, the fire was put out using water, the remaining charcoal and wood were cooled and dried for the next day.

I have some fun memories of this contraption. During holidays we stayed at different cousins’ homes and everyone wanted to shower the last because they got all the hot water they wanted. We would try to cheat in all the different ways we were trying to be ‘fair ‘. Like drawing the shortest stick, or the first one to finish eating dinner or something just as crazy was used to decide who would get the last shower. I remember breaking my stick to have the shorter one or saying I was done eating by stuffing my mouth with whatever I could in one bite and then looking for snacks an hour later!

When we got found out we would all get into trouble! Most of the time the boys didn’t care, it was all of us girls who wanted the extra hot water. By the time I was about twelve, everyone had more or less transitioned to the electric hot water heaters.

I remember seeing the hammaams in Begum Bazaar with the really large pots and pans. I wonder if these are sold still and if they serve a purpose.

by Shashi Sehgal

The Mufeed Ul Annam School on the map of Hyderabad 1913

Mufeed-Ul-Anam School, marked on a map along with a Devdi (mansion) of Raja Roop Lal of the BKC.

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Chowgda or the spice box

The chowgda is a spice-box that has been passed down from the generations in the family I am married into- the Waghray family of Kachiguda, Hyderabad. They have lived in Kachiguda for the past 50 years or so and before that they were a part of an extended family in Alijah Kotla, Charminar, in the Old city of Hyderabad, Telangana.
The chowgda housed the spices like zeera (cumin), rai (mustard), methi (fenugreek), turmeric/haldi (curcumin), mirchi (red chilly powder). But since some spices react with, in this case the pital (brass- an amalgam of copper and zinc), the inner lining or khalaiye, was laid which was made of tin that would be replaced regularly to keep the metal out of the food.

The chowgda or spice box was in use in the family when the number of people in the family were 50 and above, adults and children included. Sitting together for a meal meant bringing a group of your peers to share a large plate/ paraat and food was served in your plate only if there were 5 people available. This was a way to avoid wastage but also to make the food go around sufficiently and take care of a large family.

Cooking for the family was a routine that continued throughout the day due to the fact that so many mouths had to be fed- breakfast, lunch and dinner. My source is Meera Devi, my husband’s aunt, who would say that the three square meals were actually two meals- brunch and dinner with a small chai-snack in between at 3 pm. Her way of life has not changed much to this day as she prefers eating a brunch style meal at 10 am and dinner at 6 or 7 pm.

Shashi Sehgal, my husband’s second cousin, living in California since 1986 had this to say, “I have heard the same story from my dad, Padma bua and Laikh Raj Chacha about the meals. The other thing they talked about was how the dadis (grandmothers) took turns to do the cooking. Some did the chopping of the vegetables, some made the rotis and some made the dal. The ones who made the brunch, rotated out so a second group made the dinner. Every few days they changed shifts. Baa dadi was the matriarch of the family who was the only lady of her generation that was alive for a long time, the others had passed on when the nine siblings were still children.”

For a long time now, people have moved on to steel spice boxes which are easy to use/ clean and also a non-reactive metal if it is of a good quality.

I also wonder, what location of the brass factory in India did this chowgda arrive from? In a way that metal items in homes in India get utilized, it has a BL sign engraved on it, BL for Bidri Lal, by husband’s great grand father and it has it’s tell tale signs of wear and tear. Was the factory from Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh? What manufacturing was happening then and who were the local retail sellers for this product? Where are they now in Hyderabad and what are they engaged in at this time? Some questions remain unanswered and continue to linger.

by Malini
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Brahma Kshatriyas of eminence in Hyderabad

  • Chairman, Political Reforms Committee:  Rai C. Bal Mukund Waghray
  • Chief Justices of High Court : Bisheshwarnath Waghray, Bal Mukund Waghray, Manohar Pershad Sahgal
  • Chairman, Backward Classes Commission: Manohar Pershad Sahgal
  • Minister in Laik Ali Cabinet: Raj Mohan Lal, Bar-at-Law
  • Secretaries to Government:  H. Ram Lal Shah, Tribhuvan Lal Mahendra, DilsukhRam Sekhar, Bhupender Nath Waghray, Narsing Raj Sahgal, Guru Das Sahgal, Gul Bahadur Sahgal
  • Chief Engineers: Bala Pershad Sekhar, Veernath Rai Shah, Laxminarayen Kishen Waghray, Shivender Bahadur Sahgal (Railways)                        
  • First Woman Session Judge: Smt. Daya Devi Burman Mahendra
  • Asst. Accountant General: Manohar Lal Waghray
  • Secretary, Exhibition Society: Bhavani Rai Shah
  • Legislators: Man Mohan Lal Shah, Khushbadan Lal Mahendra 
  • Social Workers: Suraj Bhan Waghray, Daya Devi Burman Mahendra, Dr. Padmavati Shastri Waghray, Gayatri Devi Waghray, Laxmi Raj Shah, Hemchander Pershad Ghai 
  • Army Service: Col. Kailash Nath Waghray, Major Dr. B. Shiv Raj Shah, Major. Shanker Lal Desai, Lt. Col. Bishendar Bahadur Sahgal 
  • Freedom Fighters: Mahipatram Sahgal, Barrister Kishan Waghray, Karan Rai Sohni, Khushbadan Lal Mahendra, Pramila Mahendra, Amarnath Burman Mahendra , Dr. Parmavathi Shastri Waghray, Amolak Ram Waghray

Judges

Judge, High Court and Chairman, A.P Administrative Tribunal:  Upender Lal Waghray Sessions Judges : Shanker Pershad Mahendra, Barrister Ram Lal Kishen Waghray, Jitendernath Waghray, Nauratan Lal Waghray, Mohan Lal Waghray, Mahesh Narayan Mahendra, Rupender Pershad Sahgal

Eminent Doctors:

Personal Physician to the Nizam  Major Dr. B. Shiv Raj Shah

  Professor, Osmania Medical College     Dr.Satyanarayan Sahgal

    Suptd, Sarojini Devi Hospital                  Dr. P. Ramchander Desai

    RMO, Osmania Hospital                         Dr. Tulsi Das Sekhar

    Head, Orthopaedic Dept. Osm, Hospital     Dr. Dharam Rai Thakore

    Suptd, Fever Hospital                                Dr. KaranPershad  Sekhar

    Suptd, Osmania Hospital                       Dr. Vijender Nath Waghray

    Suptd, Osmania Hospital                     Dr. Binode Kumar Sahay

   Cardiologist, Gandhi Hospital              Dr. Bansi Lal Vigg

   Suptd, Maternity Home, Sultan Bazaar        Dr. Chandrakala Sahay

   Suptd, Sadhuram Eye Hospital       Dr. Shyam Sunder Pershad Kapoor

Heads of Institutions

Director, Medical Services                             Col. Kailash Nath Waghray

Director, Customs                                           Dilsukh Ram Sekhar

Director, Endowments                                    Raja Trimbak Lal Thakore

Chief Conservator of Forests                         Daulat Rai Sahgal

 Addl. Director Medical Services                    Dr. Mrs. Annapurna Vigg

 Director, Education                                        Dr. N. Ram Lal Waghray 

 General Manager, I.D.P.L.                            Roop Lal Shah

Secretary, Railway Recruitment Board          Govind Lal Waghray 

 Chief Commercial Superintendent & GM Central Railways      Arjun Pershad Sekhar

Chairman, APSRTC and Hyderabad Allwyn Metal Works           Guru Pershad Sekhar

Excerpted from the Green Book published by Amolak Ram Waghray. In the picture shaking hands with Prime Minister Nehru is Bala Pershad, Chief Engineer at the inauguration of the Nizam Sagar Dam. Also in the picture is H. Ram Lal (black shervani, extreme right in black eye glasses) who was also the secretary to the government. Picture courtesy Raj Kumar Waghray.